Campus Map

Oleg Sapozhnikov

Senior Principal Engineer






Characterizing Medical Ultrasound Sources and Fields

For every medical ultrasound transducer it's important to characterize the field it creates, whether for safety of imaging or efficacy of therapy. CIMU researchers measure a 2D acoustic pressure distribution in the beam emanating from the source transducer and then reconstruct mathematically the exact field on the surface of the transducer and in the entire 3D space.

11 Sep 2017

Mechanical Tissue Ablation with Focused Ultrasound

An experimental noninvasive surgery method uses nonlinear ultrasound pulses to liquefy tissue at remote target sites within a small focal region without damaging intervening tissues.

More Info

23 Mar 2017

Boiling histotripsy utilizes sequences of millisecond-duration HIFU pulses with high-amplitude shocks that form at the focus by nonlinear propagation effects. Due to strong attenuation of the ultrasound energy at the shocks, these nonlinear waves rapidly heat tissue and generate millimeter-sized boiling bubbles at the focus within each pulse. Then the further interaction of subsequent shocks with the vapor cavity causes tissue disintegration into subcellular debris through the acoustic atomization mechanism.

The method was proposed at APL-UW in collaboration with Moscow State University (Russia) and now is being evaluated for various clinical applications. It has particular promise because of its important clinical advantages: the treatment of tissue volumes can be accelerated while sparing adjacent structures and not injuring intervening tissues; it generates precisely controlled mechanical lesions with sharp margins; the method can be implemented in existing clinical systems; and it can be used with real-time ultrasound imaging for targeting, guidance, and evaluation of outcomes. In addition, compared to thermal ablation, BH may lead to faster resorption of the liquefied lesion contents.

Burst Wave Lithotripsy: An Experimental Method to Fragment Kidney Stones

CIMU researchers are investigating a noninvasive method to fragment kidney stones using ultrasound pulses rather than shock waves. Consecutive acoustic cycles accumulate and concentrate energy within the stone. The technique can be 'tuned' to create small fragments, potentially improving the success rate of lithotripsy procedures.

20 Nov 2014

More Videos


2000-present and while at APL-UW

Ultrasound-based cell sorting with microbubbles: A feasibility study

Matula, T.J. O.A. Sapozhnikov, L.A. Ostrovsky, A.A. Brayan, J. Kucewicz, B.E. MacConaghy, and D. De Raad, "Ultrasound-based cell sorting with microbubbles: A feasibility study," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 144, doi:10.1121/1.5044405, 2018.

More Info

1 Jul 2018

The isolation and sorting of cells is an important process in research and hospital labs. Most large research and commercial labs incorporate fluorescently or magnetically labeled antibodies adherent to cell surface antigens for cell identification and separation. In this paper, a process is described that merges biochemical labeling with ultrasound-based separation. Instead of lasers and fluorophore tags, or magnets and magnetic particle tags, the technique uses ultrasound and microbubble tags. Streptavidin-labeled microbubbles were mixed with a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, CCL 119, conjugated with biotinylated anti-CD7 antibodies. Tagged cells were forced under ultrasound, and their displacement and velocity quantified. Differential displacement in a flow stream was quantified against erythrocytes, which showed almost no displacement under ultrasound. A model for the acoustic radiation force on the conjugated pairs compares favorably with observations. This technology may improve on current time-consuming and costly purification procedures.

Nonlinear spherical standing waves in an acoustically excited liquid drop

Sapozhnikov, O.A., and E.A. Annenkova, "Nonlinear spherical standing waves in an acoustically excited liquid drop," Acoust. Phys., 64, 299-308, doi:10.1134/S1063771018030144, 2018.

More Info

1 Jun 2018

Nonlinear evolution of a standing acoustic wave in a spherical resonator with a perfectly soft surface is analyzed. Quadratic approximation of nonlinear acoustics is used to analyze oscillations in the resonator by the slowly varying amplitude method for the standing wave harmonics and slowly varying profile method for the standing wave profile. It is demonstrated that nonlinear effects may lead to considerable increase in peak pressure at the center of the resonator. The proposed theoretical model is used to analyze the acoustic field in liquid drops of an acoustic fountain. It is shown that, as a result of nonlinear evolution, the peak negative pressure may exceed the mechanical strength of the liquid, which may account for the explosive instability of drops observed in experiments.

Method for designing multi-element fully populated random phased arrays for ultrasound surgery applications

Rosnitskiy, P.B., B.A. Vysrokanov, L.R. Gavrilov, O.A. Sapozhnikov, and V.A. Khokhlova, "Method for designing multi-element fully populated random phased arrays for ultrasound surgery applications," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 65, 630-637, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2018.2800160, 2018.

More Info

1 Apr 2018

Maximizing the power of multi-element phased arrays is a critical factor for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications such as histotripsy and transcostal sonications. This can be achieved by a tight packing of the array elements. Good electronic focusing capabilities are also required. Currently used quasi-random arrays with a relatively low filling factor of about 60% have this focusing ability. Here, a novel method of designing random HIFU arrays with the maximum possible filling factor (100% if no gaps between elements needed in practice are introduced) and polygonal elements of equal area and slightly different shape based on the capacity-constrained tessellation is described. The method is validated by comparing designs of two arrays with the same geometric and physical parameters: an existing 256-element array with a compact 16-spirals layout of circular elements and the proposed array with the maximum possible filling factor. Introduction of a 0.5 mm gap between the elements of the new array resulted in a reduction of its filling factor to 86% as compared with 61% for the spiral array. It is shown that for the same intensity at the elements, the proposed array provides two times higher total power while maintaining the same electronic focusing capabilities as compared to the spiral one. Furthermore, the surface of the capacity-constrained tessellation array, its boundary, and a central opening can have arbitrary shapes.

More Publications


Design of a Transrectal Ultrasound Probe for Boiling Histotripsy Ablation of Prostate

Record of Invention Number: 48264

Tanya Khokhlova, Oleg Sapozhnikov, George Schade


6 Feb 2018

Imaging Bubbles in a Medium

Patent Number: 9,743,909

Oleg Sapozhnikov, Mike Bailey, Joo Ha Hwang, Tatiana Khokhlova, Vera Khokhlova, Tong Li, Matthew O'Donnell

More Info


29 Aug 2017

A method for imaging a cavitation bubble includes producing a vibratory wave that induces a cavitation bubble in a medium, producing one or more detection waves directed toward the induced cavitation bubble, receiving one or more reflection waves, identifying a change in one or more characteristics of the induced cavitation bubble, and generating an image of the induced cavitation bubble using a computing device on the basis of the identified change in the one or more characteristics. The one or more received reflection waves correspond to at least one of the one or more produced detection waves reflection from the induced cavitation bubble. The identified change in one or more characteristics corresponds to the one or more received reflection waves.

Methods and Systems for Non-invasive Treatment of Tissue Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy

Patent Number: 9,700,742

Michael Canney, Mike Bailey, Larry Crum, Joo Ha Hwang, Tatiana Khokhlova, Vera Khokhlova, Wayne Kreider, Oleg Sapozhnikov

More Info


11 Jul 2017

Methods and systems for non-invasive treatment of tissue using high intensity focused ultrasound ("HIFU") therapy. A method of non-invasively treating tissue in accordance with an embodiment of the present technology, for example, can include positioning a focal plane of an ultrasound source at a target site in tissue. The ultrasound source can be configured to emit HIFU waves. The method can further include pulsing ultrasound energy from the ultrasound source toward the target site, and generating shock waves in the tissue to induce boiling of the tissue at the target site within milliseconds. The boiling of the tissue at least substantially emulsifies the tissue.

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center